2 Timothy – Acts or Post Acts?
By Irene M. Walther, FL, USA
Was 2 Timothy written during the Acts period or after the close of the Acts period? The table below lists words and phrases that indicate the book was written either during the Acts period or post Acts. All Scriptures are from Rotherham Emphasized Bible unless otherwise noted.
|V3 Grateful, am I, unto God,—unto whom I am rendering divine service from my progenitors (ancestors)
Note: Jewish religion
|V15 that all they who are in Asia have turned away from me,—of whom are Phygelus and Hermogenes.
Note: These two are named zero other times in the New and Old Testaments. We do not know their time period. It may have been during the Acts period.
|V5 unfeigned faith in thee,—such, as dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and in thy mother Eunice
Note: Jewish religion
|V6 I put thee in remembrance, to be stirring up God’s gift of favour, which is in thee through means of the laying on of my hands;
Note: Laying on of hands to impart gifts of the holy spirit was done during the Acts period, and that gift was still in operation when 2 Timothy was written.
|V9 the peculiar purpose and favour—which was given to us in Christ Jesus before age-during (αιωνιων, Strong’s word 166) times, (word 5550)
|V10 But hath now been made manifest through means of the forthshining (word 2015) of our Saviour Christ Jesus
|V14 the holy spirit which dwells in you
Note: This phrase “the spirit” dwelling in you” is used three times. The other two usages are in Romans.
Ro 8:11a If, moreover, the Spirit of him that raised Jesus from among the dead dwelleth in you,
Ro 8:11b he that raised from among the dead Christ Jesus, shall make alive [[even]] your death-doomed bodies, through means of his indwelling Spirit within you.
|V16-17 Onesiphorus ofttimes, hath refreshed me, in Rome, he diligently sought out and found me,
Note: Paul was a prisoner in Rome for two whole years in his own hired house (Acts 28:30-31). This is the only time recorded in Scriptures that Paul was in Rome.
Verse 9, Words 5550 (Times) and 166 (Age-during) Together
- Ro 16:25 Now, unto him who hath power to establish you, according to my glad-message even the proclamation of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of a sacred secret, in age-past times kept silent,
- 2Ti 1:9 Who hath saved us, and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to the peculiar purpose and favour which was given to us in Christ Jesus before age-during times,
- Tit 1:2 In hope of life age-abiding (word 166); which God, who cannot lie, promised before age-during times,
Word 166 is translated as “age-abiding” except for these three usages with the word “time”. It is derived from word 165, “age”. In only these three verses are “age-abiding” and “time” put together and the 2 Timothy and Titus verses are the only ones where “age-abiding’ and “before” are used together.
The “before” has to do with time and not before the founding of the world which belongs to the church which is His body as stated in Ephesians 1:4. “According as he made choice of us, in him, before the founding of a world, that we might be holy and blameless in his presence; in love.”
Verse 10, Word 2015 Forthshining
- 2Th 2:8 And, then, shall be revealed the lawless one,—whom, the Lord Jesus, will slay with the Spirit of his mouth, and paralyse with the forthshining of his Presence:
- 1Ti 6:14 That thou keep the commandment without spot, free from reproach, until the forthshining of our Lord Jesus Christ
- 2Ti 1:10 But hath now been made manifest through means of the forthshining of our Saviour Christ Jesus, Who, indeed, hath abolished death, and hath thrown light upon life and incorruptibility, through means of the glad-message:
- 2Ti 4:1 I adjure thee before God, and Christ Jesus Who is about to be judging living and dead, both as to his forthshining and his kingdom,
- 2Ti 4:8 Henceforth, lieth by for me the crown, of righteousness, which the Lord will render unto me in that, day, The righteous judge, Ye, not alone unto me, but unto all them also who have loved his forthshining.
- Tit 2:13 Prepared to welcome the happy hope and forthshining of the glory of the great God and our Saviour Christ Jesus,
The first occurrence of word 2015 is in 2 Thessalonians 2:8. It clearly teaches that the forthshining will be at Christ’s second coming to earth at the end of the tribulation period when He destroys the lawless one, the Anti-Christ. That is future. Verses 4, 5, and 6 are also in the future tense. Christ will judge the living and the dead in the future, Paul will be awarded the crown of righteousness in the future, and the forthshining of the glory of God is also future.
In numbers 2 and 3, the verbs are in the aorist tense. In number 2, the verb is aorist, active, infinitive. The action is simply occurring-indefinite, punctiliar. It is an infinitive, that is, a verbal noun. Timothy is charged to continue to keep the commandments for an undetermined time until the forthshining of the Lord. The forthshining here is also in the future.
That leaves 2 Timothy 1:10, the verse under study. What has now been made manifest by the forthshining of Christ Jesus? The context answers that question:
8 Be not thou, therefore, put to shame—with regard to the witness of our Lord, nor with regard to me his prisoner; but suffer hardship together with the glad-message according to the power of God,—
9 Who hath saved us, and called us with a holy calling, not according to our works, but according to the peculiar purpose and favour—which was given to us in Christ Jesus before age-during times,
10 But hath now been made manifest through means of the forthshining of our Saviour Christ Jesus,—Who, indeed, hath abolished death, and hath thrown light upon life and incorruptibility, through means of the glad-Message:
God’s calling, purpose, and favour, which were in the past, were manifested by the forthshining of Christ Jesus at His first coming to Earth.
Forthshining is used of both Christ’s first and second comings to Earth.
At His first coming, He manifested what were God’s purpose and favour.
At His second coming, He will
- Slay the lawless one (the Antichrist)
- Judge the living and the dead
- Award the crown of righteousness
Timothy was charged to keep God’s commandments until the forthshining, and Titus was told to welcome the forthshining of the glory of God.
|V5 any man, contend even in the games, he is not crowned, unless, lawfully, he contend;
Note: He is striving for the masteries, competing in the games as in 1 Corinthians 9:25 But, every man who striveth in the games, in all things, useth self-control; -they, indeed, then, that a corruptible crown, they may receive; but, we, an incorruptible!
|V8 Jesus Christ—raised from among the dead, of the seed of David,—according to my joyful message:
Note: The only other use of the term “seed of David” is in Romans 1:3, an Acts period epistle.
2 Which he promised beforehand, through his prophets, in holy scriptures—
3 Concerning his Son,—who came to be of the seed of David, according to flesh,
4 Who was distinguished as the Son of God—by power, according to a Holy Spirit, through means of a resurrection of the dead,—Jesus Christ our Lord;
|V17 Hymenaeus and Philetus
Note: 1. Hymenaeus is also mentioned in
1 Tim 1:20: Of whom are Hymenaeus and Alexander; whom I have delivered unto Satan, that they may be taught by discipline not to be defaming.
Delivering a person to satan is only stated one other time
1Co 5:5 To deliver such a one as this, unto Satan, for the destruction of the flesh,—that, the spirit, may be saved in the day of the Lord. This was during the Acts period.
2. This is the only mention of Philetus.
|V1 But, of this, be taking note—that, in last days, there will set in perilous seasons;
|V8 Moreover, like as, Jannes and Jambres, withstood Moses, so, these men also, withstand the truth,—men utterly corrupted in their mind, disapproved concerning their faith;
Note: These two are Old Testament people.
|V15 And that, from a babe, those sacred letters, thou hast known which are able to make thee wise unto salvation, through the faith which is in Christ Jesus:
Note: Old Testament
Verse 1, Words 2078 (Last) and 2250 (Days)
- Joh 6:39 And, this, is the will of him that sent me, That, of all that which he hath given me, I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day.
- Joh 6:40 For, this, is the will of my Father, That, every one that vieweth the Son, and believeth on him, should have life age-abiding, and, I, should raise him up, at the last day.
- Joh 6:44 No one, can come unto me, except, the Father who sent me, draw him, and, I, will raise him up, in the last day.
- Joh 6:54 He that feedeth upon my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath life age-abiding, and, I, will raise him up at the last day;
- Joh 7:37 Now, on the last the great day of the feast, Jesus was standing, and he cried aloud, saying If any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink:
- Joh 11:24 Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise, in the resurrection, in the last day.
- Joh 12:48 He that setteth me aside, and receiveth not my sayings, hath that which is to judge him: The word that I spake, that, will judge him, in the last day.
- Ac 2:17 And it shall be, in the last days saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and, your young men, visions shall see and, your elders, in dreams shall dream,
- 2Ti 3:1 But, of this, be taking note that, in last days, there will set in perilous seasons;
- Heb 1:2 At the end of these days, He hath spoken unto us in his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, through whom also he hath made the ages;
- Jas 5:3 Your gold and silver, have rusted away, and, their rust, shall be, witness against you, and shall eat your flesh, as fire! Ye have laid up treasure in days of extremity:
- 2Pe 3:3 Of this, first, taking note that there will come, in the last of the days, with scoffing, scoffers, after their own covetings, going on,
In all of the uses except for John 7:37 and Hebrews 1:2, last days refer to a specific time period before the Lord returns and at His return. John 7:37 is the last day of the feast. Hebrews 2:1, the last days refer to the days of Christ’s earthly ministry.
|V1 Christ Jesus to judge at His forthshining and His kingdom.
See “Forthshining” above
|V7 The noble contest, have I contested, the race, have I finished, the faith, have I kept:
|V6a Paul is being poured out as a drink-offering.
|V10Demas, hath forsaken me, having loved the present age, and hath journeyed unto Thessalonica;
Note: Col 4:14 Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas, salute you.
2Ti 4:10 For, Demas, hath forsaken me, having loved the present age, and hath journeyed unto Thessalonica; Crescens unto Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia:
Phm 1:24 Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, Luke,—my fellow-workers.
These are the only three references to Demas in the New Testament.
In Colossians 4:14, Demas was still with Paul and had not forsaken him. That seems to place 2 Timothy as written later than Colossians.
However, there are two possible explanations:
1. Demas did return to Paul at a later date and again ministered with Paul OR
2. There was more than one person named Demas in Paul’s ministry.
|V6b The season of Paul’s release is at hand.
|V12 “and, Tychicus, have I sent unto Ephesus.”
Note: Eph 6:21 In order, however, that, ye also, may know the things which relate to me—what I am accomplishing,—all things, shall Tychicus make known unto you, he the beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord,
Paul sent Tychicus to Ephesus.
1. Travel was slow. Ephesians was written AFTER Paul sent Tychicus in 2 Timothy and while he was still on his journey.
2. OR It is possible that Paul sent Tychicus to the Ephesians more than one time.
|V8 The crown of righteousness is laid up for loving Christ’s forthshining.
See above chapter 1for Forthshining
See below for crown of righteousness
Verse 6, Poured Out As a Drink Offering
“Poured out as a drink offering” or “offered as a libation” in the Apostolic Bible Polyglot is understood by some believers to refer to Paul’s imminent martyrdom. Is that what the term actually means? The Greek word 4689 is only used one other time in the New Testament, in Philippians, and is used twenty times in the LXX. Below are all the occurrences of word 4689, from the Apostolic Bible Polyglot.
- Gen_35:14 AndG2532 Jacob set upG2476 G* a monument1 inG1722 theG3588 placeG5117 in whichG3739 [2spokeG2980 3withG3326 4himG1473 G3588 1God] —G2316 [2monumentG4739.1 1a stone].G3035 AndG2532 he offeredG4689 uponG1909 itG1473 a libation,G4700.2 andG2532 he pouredG2022 uponG1909 itG1473 olive oil.G1637
- Exo_25:29 AndG2532 you shall makeG4160 G3588 its saucers,G5165 G1473 andG2532 theG3588 incense pans,1 andG2532 theG3588 libation bowls,G4700.1 andG2532 theG3588 cups,G2939.1 inG1722 whichG3739 you shall offer a libationG4689 inG1722 them;G1473 [2goldG5553 1of pure]G2513 you shall makeG4160 them.G1473
- Exo_30:9 AndG2532 you shall not offerG3756 G399 uponG1909 itG1473 [2incenseG2368 1another].G2087 A yield offering ,2 andG2532 a sacrifice offering ,G2378 andG2532 a libation offering G4700.2 you shall not offerG3756 G4689 uponG1909 it.G1473
- Exo_37:16 AndG2532 he madeG4160 theG3588 utensilsG4632 for theG3588 table,G5132 bothG3588 G5037 its saucers,G5165 G1473 andG2532 theG3588 incense pans,1 andG2532 theG3588 cups,G2939.1 andG2532 theG3588 libation bowlsG4700.1 inG1722 whichG3739 the priest will offer libationsG4689 inG1722 them,G1473 [2goldG5553 1 made of pure].G2513
- Num_4:7 AndG2532 uponG1909 theG3588 table,G5132 the oneG3588 being situated for the loaves ,G4295 they shall putG1911 uponG1909 itG1473 a garmentG2440 entirely of purple,1 andG2532 theG3588 saucers,G5165 andG2532 theG3588 incense pans,G2367.1 andG2532 theG3588 cups,G2939.1 andG2532 theG3588 libation bowlsG4700.1 inG1722 whichG3739 you offer a libation;G4689 andG2532 theG3588 [2bread loavesG740 G3588 1continualG1275 4uponG1909 5itG1473 3shall be].G1510.8.6
- Num_28:7 AndG2532 its libation —2 G1473 theG3588 fourth part G5067 of theG3588 hinG1511 to theG3588 [2lambG286 G3588 1one].G1520 InG1722 theG3588 holy place G39 you shall offerG4689 a libation offering G4700.2 of liquorG4608 to the lord .G2962
- 2Sa_23:16 AndG2532 [4tore upG1284 1theG3588 2threeG5140 3mighty ones]G1415 theG3588 campG3925 of theG3588 Philistines,G246 andG2532 they drew2 waterG5204 fromG1537 theG3588 well,G2978.1 of the oneG3588 inG1722 Beth-lehem,G* of the oneG3588 byG1722 theG3588 gate.G4439 AndG2532 they took of it ,G2983 andG2532 cameG3854 toG4314 David.G* AndG2532 he did notG3756 wantG2309 to drinkG4095 it,G1473 andG2532 he offered it a libationG4689 G1473 to theG3588 lord .G2962
- 2Ki_16:13 AndG2532 he offeredG399 G3588 his whole burnt-offering,1 G1473 andG2532 G3588 his sacrifice offering ;G2378 G1473 andG2532 G3588 [2of his libation offering G4700.2 G1473 1he offered a libation]G4689 to it;G1473 andG2532 he pouredG4377.2 uponG1909 itG1473 theG3588 bloodG129 G3588 [2peace offerings G1516 1of his] —G1473 uponG1909 theG3588 altar,G2379
- 1Ch_11:18 AndG2532 [3tore upG1284 1theG3588 2three]G5140 theG3588 campG3925 of theG3588 Philistines,G246 andG2532 they drew2 waterG5204 fromG1537 theG3588 wellG2978.1 of G3588 Beth-lehem,G* whichG3739 wasG1510.7.3 atG1722 theG3588 gate,G4439 andG2532 they took it,G2983 andG2532 cameG2064 toG4314 David.G* AndG2532 [2did notG3756 3wantG2309 1David]G* G3588 to drinkG4095 it.G1473 AndG2532 he gave it as a libationG4689 G1473 to theG3588 lord ,G2962
- Jer_7:18 G3588 Their sonsG5207 G1473 collect togetherG4816 wood,G3586 andG2532 G3588 their fathersG3962 G1473 kindleG2545 a fire,G4442 andG2532 G3588 their womenG1135 G1473 knead1 doughG4712.5 G3588 to makeG4160 cakesG5490.1 to theG3588 militaryG4756 of theG3588 heaven;G3772 andG2532 they offeredG4689 libationsG4700.2 to strange gods,G2316 G245 thatG2443 they should provoke me to anger.G3949 G1473
- Jer_19:13 AndG2532 theG3588 housesG3624 of Jerusalem,G* andG2532 theG3588 housesG3624 of the kingsG935 of JudahG* will be8.6 asG2531 G3588 a placeG5117 G3588 having fallen into ruinG1276.3 because ofG575 theG3588 uncleannessesG167 inG1722 allG3956 theG3588 housesG3614 inG1722 whichG3739 they burned incenseG2370 uponG1909 theG3588 roofsG1430 to allG3956 theG3588 militaryG4756 of theG3588 heaven,G3772 andG2532 offeredG4689 libationsG4700.2 to strange gods.G2316 G245
- Jer_32:29 AndG2532 [3shall comeG2240 1theG3588 2Chaldeans]G* waging warG4170 againstG1909 G3588 this city;G4172 G3778 andG2532 they shall burnG2545 G3588 this cityG4172 G3778 byG1722 fire,G4442 andG2532 shall incinerateG2618 theG3588 housesG3614 in whichG3739 they burned incenseG2370 uponG1909 G3588 their roofsG1430 G1473 G3588 to Baal,G* andG2532 offeredG4689 libations2 to other gods,G2316 G2087 toG4314 G3588 greatly embitterG3893 me.G1473
- Jer_44:17 ForG3754 in doingG4160 we will doG4160 allG3956 theG3588 matterG3056 whichG3739 shall come forthG1831 out ofG1537 G3588 our mouthG4750 G1473 to burn incenseG2370 to theG3588 queenG938 G3588 of heaven,G3772 andG2532 to offerG4689 to herG1473 libations,2 asG2505 we didG4160 ourselves,G1473 andG2532 G3588 our fathers,G3962 G1473 andG2532 G3588 our kings,G935 G1473 andG2532 G3588 our rulersG758 G1473 inG1722 the citiesG4172 of Judah,G* andG2532 outsideG1855 Jerusalem.G* AndG2532 we were filledG4130 of bread loaves,G740 andG2532 we wereG1096 better off ,G5543 andG2532 [3bad things G2556 1we did notG3756 2see].G1492
- Jer_44:18 AndG2532 asG5613 we stoppedG1257 burning incenseG2370 to theG3588 queenG938 of theG3588 heaven,G3772 andG2532 offering a libationG4689 to herG1473 of a libation,2 [2were 4made lessG1639.2 G3956 3allG3956 1we],G1473 andG2532 byG1722 broadswordG4501 andG2532 byG1722 famineG3042 we failed.G1587
- Jer_44:19a AndG2532 seeing thatG3754 weG1473 burned incenseG2370 to theG3588 queenG938 G3588 of heaven,G3772 andG2532 offeredG4689 to herG1473 libations,2 did weG3361 withoutG427 G3588 our husbandsG435 G1473 makeG4160 to herG1473 cakes,G5490.1
- Jer_44:19b andG2532 offerG4689 libations2 to her?G1473
- Jer_44:25 ThusG3779 saidG2036 the lord G2962 G3588 GodG2316 of Israel,G* YouG1473 andG2532 G3588 your womenG1135 [2 with G3588 3your mouthG4750 G1473 1spoke],G2980 andG2532 G3588 [2by your handsG5495 G1473 1fulfilled],G4137 saying,G3004 In offering,G4160 we shall offerG4160 G3588 our acknowledgment offerings G3671 G1473 whichG3739 we acknowledged,G3670 to burn incenseG2370 to theG3588 queenG938 G3588 of heaven,G3772 andG2532 to offerG4689 to herG1473G4700.2 In adheringG1696 you adhered toG1696 G3588 your acknowledgment offerings ,G3671 G1473 andG2532 the offeringsG4160 which you offered.G4160
- Eze_20:28 AndG2532 I brought themG1521 G1473 intoG1519 theG3588 landG1093 whichG3739 I lifted upG142 G3588 my handG5495 G1473 G3588 to giveG1325 itG1473 to them.G1473 AndG2532 they beheldG1492 everyG3956 [2hillG1015 1high],G5308 andG2532 everyG3956 [2treeG3586 1shady].1 AndG2532 they sacrificedG2380 thereG1563 to G3588 their gods.G2316 G1473 AndG2532 they arrangedG5021 thereG1563 the wrathG3709 of theG3588 gift offerings .G1435 AndG2532 they arrangedG5021 thereG1563 a scentG3744 of their pleasant aroma offering .G2175 G1473 AndG2532 they offered a libationG4689 thereG1563 of their libation offerings .G4700.2 G1473
- Dan_2:46 ThenG5119 G3588 kingG935 NebuchadnezzarG* fellG4098 uponG1909 his face,G4383 andG2532 G3588 did obeisance to Daniel,G* G4352 andG2532 [4of a gift offering 2 5andG2532 6of a pleasant aroma offering G2175 1saidG2036 2to offer a libationG4689 3to him].G1473
- Hos_9:4 They offered not a libationG3756 G4689 to theG3588 lord G2962 of wine,G3631 andG2532 were notG3756 delicious1 to him;G1473 G3588 their sacrificesG2378 G1473 were asG5613 breadG740 of mourningG3997 to them;G1473 allG3956 the onesG3588 eatingG2068 themG1473 shall be defiled.G3392 ForG1360 their bread loavesG740 G1473 G3588 for their livesG5590 G1473 shall notG3756 enterG1525 intoG1519 theG3588 houseG3624 of the lord .G2962
- Php_2:17 ButG235 even ifG1499 I am offered as a libationG4689 uponG1909 theG3588 sacrificeG2378 andG2532 ministrationG3009 of theG3588 beliefG4102 G1473 of yours,G1473 I rejoice,G5463 andG2532 I rejoice along withG4796 allG3956G1473
- 2Ti_4:6 For IG1473 G1063 alreadyG2235 am offered as a libation,G4689 andG2532 theG3588 timeG2540 G3588 of myG1699 separationG359 stands by.G2186
Number 1 is Jacob pouring out olive oil as an offering, a libation, to the Lord. Numbers 2-5 refer to the offering of libations in the tabernacle. Numbers 7 to 9 are Israelites offering libations to the Lord.
Number 10 through 18 are libation offerings to idols as a form of worship. In number 19, King Nebuchadnezzar offered a libation to Daniel. In the last Old Testament usage, the Israelites did not offer libations to the Lord.
In the two New Testament uses, Paul states that he is being offered as a libation, that is, his life was being poured out in his ministry.
None of these libations involved Death.
Verse 6, Paul’s Time of Release
“Release”, word 359 is only used this one time in the New Testament and was not used at all in the LXX. Here is the definition:
1) an unloosing (as of things woven)
2) a dissolving (into separate parts)
3a) a metaphor drawn from loosing from moorings preparatory to setting sail
Part of Speech: noun
Word 359 is derived from word 360.
1) to unloose, undo again
2) to depart, break up, to depart from life, to return
Part of Speech: verb
Word 360 is used twice in the New Testament.
- Luk 12:36 And, ye yourselves, like unto men awaiting their own lord, once he may break up out of the marriage-feast,—that, when he cometh and knocketh, straightway, they may open unto him.
- Php 1:23 I am held in constraint, however, by reason of the two,—having, the coveting, to be released, and to be with, Christ, for it were far better!
To translate the noun in 2 Timothy 4:6 the same as the verb, the verse would read: “For I already am being poured out as a drink offering, and the time of my release stands by.”
Per the context of 2 Timothy 4, Paul expected to soon be released from the prison where he was incarcerated. In the following verses, he told Timothy to come speedily and to bring his cloak and the scrolls and parchments. These are not the request of a man expecting to be executed soon.
2Ti 4:9 Give diligence to come unto me speedily,
2Ti 4:13 The cloak that I left in Troas, with Carpus, when thou comest, bring; and the scrolls, especially, the parchments.
“For, I, already, am being poured out as a drink-offering, and, the season of my release, is at hand,”— is an accurate translation. Paul was pouring out his life in ministry as an offering to the Lord and expected to be soon released from prison.
Verse 7, Race or Course, Word 1408
Below are the three uses of word 1408 from Young’s Literal Translation.
- Ac 13:25 and as John was fulfilling the course, he said, Whom me do ye suppose to be? I am not he, but, lo, he doth come after me, of whom I am not worthy to loose the sandal of his feet.
- Ac 20:24 but I make account of none of these, neither do I count my life precious to myself, so that I finish my course with joy, and the ministration that I received from the Lord Jesus, to testify fully the good news of the grace of God.
- 2Ti 4:7 the good strife I have striven, the course I have finished, the faith I have kept,
In Acts, Paul’s desire was to finish his course. In 2 Timothy, he stated that yes he had completed it. John the Baptist also had a course that he fulfilled.
This verse states that Paul finished the course that he was in during the Acts period, the course of the earthly kingdom. Paul never stated that he was in a course in any of his other epistles and definitely NOT in Ephesians and Colossians.
The course Paul finished was the one of the EARTHLY, Israeli kingdom, just as John the Baptist finished his earthly, Israeli kingdom. “Course” is never used in reference to the church which is His body.
Verse 8, Crown of Righteousness
This is the only verse that uses this term. They are Greek words 4735, crown, and 1343, righteousness.
Crown, Word 4735
- Mt 27:29 and, plaiting a crown out of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand,—and, kneeling before him, began to mock him, saying—Joy to thee, King of the Jews!
- Mr 15:17 and they array him in purple, and set upon him, when they have plaited it; a crown of thorns,—
- Joh 19:2 And, the soldiers, plaiting a crown out of thorns, placed it upon his head, and, a purple robe, cast they about him;
- Joh 19:5 Jesus, therefore, came forth outside, wearing the thorn crown, and the purple mantle. And he saith unto them—Lo! the Man!
- 1Co 9:25 But, every man who striveth in the games, in all things, useth self-control; -they, indeed, then, that a corruptible crown, they may receive; but, we, an incorruptible!
- Php 4:1 So then, my brethren, beloved and longed for, my joy and crown,—thus, stand fast in the Lord, beloved.
- 1Th 2:19 For what shall be our hope, or joy, or crown of boasting? Shall not even, ye, before our Lord Jesus, in his Presence?
- 2Ti 4:8 Henceforth, lieth by for me—the crown, of righteousness, which the Lord will render unto me in that, day,—The righteous judge,—Ye, not alone unto me, but unto all them also who have loved his forthshining.
- Jas 1:12 Happy the man who endureth temptation! Because, becoming approved, he shall receive the crown of life—which he hath promised unto them that love him.
- 1Pe 5:4 And, when the Chief Shepherd is manifested, ye shall bear away, the unfading crown of glory.
- Re 2:10 Do not fear the things which thou art about to suffer. Lo! the adversary is about to cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried, and may have tribulation ten days. Become thou faithful until death, and I will give thee the crown of life.
- Re 3:11 I come quickly: hold fast that which thou hast, that, no one, take thy crown.
- Re 4:4 and, round about the throne, were four and twenty thrones; and, upon the thrones, four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white garments, and, upon their heads, were crowns of gold.
- Re 4:10 the four and twenty elders will fall down before him that sitteth upon the throne, and do homage unto him that liveth unto the ages of ages,—and will cast their crowns before the throne, saying—
- Re 6:2 And I saw, and lo! a white horse,—and he that was sitting thereon holding a bow; and there was given unto him a crown, and he went forth conquering, and that he might conquer.
- Re 9:7 And, the likenesses of the locusts, were like unto horses prepared for battle; and, upon their heads, as it were crowns, like unto gold, and, their faces, were as the faces of men,
- Re 12:1 And, a great sign, appeared in heaven: a woman arrayed with the sun, and, the moon, beneath her feet, and, upon her head, a crown of twelve stars;
- Re 14:14 And I saw, and lo! a white cloud, and, upon the cloud, one sitting like unto a son of man, having, upon his head, a crown of gold, and, in his hand, a sharp sickle.
The first four verses are the crown of thorns placed on the Lord’s head. Numbers 5 through 12 are crowns awarded to believers for faithful service. Numbers 13 and 14 are the twenty four elders casting their crowns before God. Numbers 15 and 16 are crowns worn by enemies during the tribulation. Number 17 is the crown on Israel, and number 18 is the crown on the Lord at His second coming.
These crowns are all associated with Israel.
C o n c l u s i o n
Words and phrases used that show that this epistle, 2 Timothy, was written during the Acts period of the earthly Kingdom.
- Paul was rendering divine services from his ancestors, the Jewish religion.
- Timothy has unfeigned faith as did his mother and grandmother, in the Jewish religion.
- Timothy had the gift of God by the laying on of Paul’s hands.
- God’s purpose and favor were before age-during times.
- The forthshining of Christ Jesus, both His first and His second comings.
- Holy spirit dwelt in Timothy.
- Paul was a prisoner in Rome for two years, Acts 28:30-31, when he wrote this epistle.
- Paul was contending in the games.
- Jesus Christ of the seed of David was raised from among the dead.
- Hymenaeus was delivered to satan for the destruction of his flesh.
- Paul wrote about the last days.
- Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, part of Israel’s history.
- Timothy knew the Scriptures since he was a babe, the Old Testament.
- Paul was being poured out as a drink offering.
- It was the time Paul’s release from prison.
- Paul will receive the crown of righteousness at Christ’s forthshining.
Words and phrases that possibly show the epistle was written post Acts.
- All in Asia had turned away from Paul, of whom are Phygelus and Germogenes. The time period of this is unknown and, therefore, cannot be a proof that 2 Timothy is post Acts.
- Paul had finished his course (race). This is the same course as he was racing in Acts, the course of the earthly kingdom.
- Demas had forsaken Paul. Since Demas was still with Paul in Colossians, 1. he may have returned to Paul or 2. the Demas in Colossians is a different person than the one in 2 Timothy.
- Paul sent Tychicus to the Ephesus per both epistles. Two possibilities 1. Ephesians was written after 2 Timothy while Tychicus was on his journey or 2. Paul may have sent Tychicus to Ephesus more than one time.
Sixteen strong words and phrases prove the Acts period characteristic of 2 Timothy. The four possible words or phrases that would place it post Acts are not conclusive.
2 Timothy was written during the two whole years in Rome when Paul lived in his own hired house. The following facts support that conclusion:
- The two years of Acts 28:30-31 are the only time that Scriptures record that Paul was in Rome.
- In chapter 1, verses 16 and 17, Onesiphorus diligently found Paul in Rome and refreshed him.
- Chapter 4 verse 20 states “Erastus, remained in Corinth; but, Trophimus, I left at Miletus, sick”. The only two references to Miletus are in Acts chapter 20. Paul stopped there on his journey to Jerusalem.
One more point needs to be made to show that 2 Timothy is an Acts period, earthly kingdom epistle. What was Paul preaching during the two whole years in Rome in Acts 28:30-31?
30 And he abode two whole years in his own hired house, and made welcome all who were coming in unto him,—
31 proclaiming the kingdom of God, and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ, with all freedom of speech, without hindrance.
Paul was proclaiming the kingdom of God and the Lord Jesus Christ during those two years. What was the kingdom of God?
The term kingdom is used eight times in the book of Acts
- Ac 1:3 Unto whom he also presented himself alive, after he had suffered, by many sure tokens, throughout forty days making himself visible unto them, and speaking the things concerning the kingdom of God.
- Ac 1:6 They, therefore, having come together, began to question him, saying—Lord! art thou at this time duly establishing the kingdom unto Israel?
- Ac 8:12 But, when they believed Philip telling the good news concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they proceeded to be immersed, both men and women.
- Ac 14:22 confirming the souls of the disciples, beseeching them to abide in the faith, and declaring that, through many tribulations, must we enter into the kingdom of God.
- Ac 19:8 And, entering into the synagogue, he was speaking boldly for three months, reasoning and persuading concerning the kingdom of God.
- Ac 20:25 And, now, lo! I, know that, no more, shall ye see my face,—ye all, among whom I have gone about proclaiming the kingdom.
- Ac 28:23 And, having arranged with him a day, there came unto him, to the lodging, a larger number (Jewish leaders); unto whom he proceeded to expound, bearing full witness as to the kingdom of God, and persuading them concerning Jesus, both from the law of Moses, and from the prophets,—from morning till evening.
- Ac 28:31 proclaiming the kingdom of God, and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ, with all freedom of speech, without hindrance.
The kingdom was
- Of Israel
- Taught in the synagogues
- Proclaimed to the Jewish leaders
- Taught from the law and the prophets
The kingdom of God in verse 31 is the same kingdom of God as in the other seven uses in Acts. Paul continued to teach the same earthly, Israeli kingdom until the close of the book of Acts. During those two years, he penned 2 Timothy, which was also an earthly kingdom epistle.